Propulsion and speed in the water

Propulsion and speed | dolphin kicks.


  • What swimming techniques can people use to swim as fast as possible?
  • What tools can help with swimming fast?


Content taught:

  • A leg stroke inspired by the dolphin has become established in competition because it allows faster propulsion than pure crawl swimming („dolphin kicks“).
  • The dolphin kick works both in prone and lateral position. But be careful: in side position, untrained swimmers quickly swim in circles.
  • An effective means of increasing propulsion is to increase the surface area used to generate propulsion, e.g. by using fins.


(((Deutsche Version)))

Propulsion and resistance in water

Propulsion and resistance | gliding tests


  • How can water resistance be reduced during gliding?
  • What is the most streamlined position?

Content taught:

  • Optimizing posture in the water:
    • Arms stretched,
    • hands on top of each other,
    • elbows as straight as possible,
    • head resting on the arms from the front,
    • spine stretched (shoulder mobility is important),
    • torso tense,
    • legs stretched and closed.


(((Deutsche Version)))

Buoyancy & density

Buoyancy and density | Starfish


  • What happens when you lie (inhaled) on the water in a prone position?
  • What happens when one takes a parcel shape?
  • What happens when one exhales?

Taught content:

  • Depending on the distribution of body (mass) center and volume center in the body, the legs sink towards the bottom or remain in the horizontal position.
  • Individuals in whom the two points are close together have favorable conditions for swimming.


(((Deutsche Version)))

Auftrieb und Dichte

Auftrieb und Dichte | Seestern


  • Was passiert, wenn man sich (eingeatmet) in Bauchlage auf das Wasser legt?
  • Was passiert, wenn man eine Päckchenform einnimmt?
  • Was passiert, wenn man ausatmet?

Vermittelte Inhalte:

  • Je nach Verteilung von Körper(massen)schwerpunkt und Volumenmittelpunkt im Körper sinken die Beine in Richtung Grund ab oder bleiben in der horizontalen Position.
  • Personen, bei denen die beiden Punkte nahe beieinander liegen, bringen günstige Voraussetzungen für das Schwimmen mit.


(((English Version)))

Vortrieb und Widerstand im Wasser

Vortrieb und Widerstand | Gleitversuche


  • Wie kann der Wasserwiderstand beim Gleiten reduziert werden?
  • Welches ist die strömungsgünstigste Position?

Vermittelte Inhalte:

  • Optimierung der Körperhaltung im Wasser:
    • Arme gestreckt,
    • Hände übereinander,
    • Ellenbogen möglichst gerade,
    • Kopf von vorne an die Arme anlegen,
    • Wirbelsäule gestreckt (Schulterbeweglichkeit ist wichtig),
    • Rumpf angespannt,
    • Beine gestreckt und geschlossen.


(((English Version)))

Vortrieb und Geschwindigkeit im Wasser

Vortrieb und Geschwindigkeit | Delphin-Kicks


  • Welche Schwimmtechniken können Menschen anwenden, um möglichst schnell zu schwimmen?
  • Welche Hilfsmittel können beim schnellen Schwimmen helfen?


Vermittelte Inhalte:

  • Ein Beinschlag, der vom Delphin inspiriert ist, hat sich im Wettkampf etabliert, weil er einen schnelleren Vortrieb ermöglicht als reines Kraulschwimmen („Delphin-Kicks“).
  • Der Delphin-Kick funktioniert sowohl in Bauchlage und Seitenlage. Aber Vorsicht: In Seitenlage schwimmen Ungeübte schnell im Kreis.
  • Ein effektives Mittel für mehr Vortrieb ist Vergrößerung der Fläche, mit der der Vortrieb erzeugt wird, z.B. durch Flossen.


(((English Version)))

Throwing/Shot Put Techniques and t-v Diagrams

Summary: The students (recommended age 10 – 14 yr) enhance their throwing distance (by improving the throwing angle and the throwing speed) and learn/practice the interpretation of time-velocity diagrams.

General Note: The lesson structure combines sports and STEM (physics focus) by alternating between the two subjects. There are 4 lessons à 90 minutes.

Topics overview

Lesson 1: This lesson focuses on getting to know various ball versions and experimenting with throwing them. The students record their techniques and compare them. Another key point is finding an optimal throwing angle.

Lesson 2: The students learn/train a few keywords (velocity, distance, force, …) to better describe the (physical) aspects of the flying curve. Furthermore, the students train in the use of diagrams (time-velocity). Easy examples of using the throwing device get distributed to learn the connection between movement and data. The students also perform some easy tasks with the device to see the results of their movement.

 Lesson 3: This is a practical lesson about improving the chosen throwing technique, especially focusing on better throwing velocity. The students work in tandem groups to record and train the exercise regularly and use the sensory data to judge their improvements.

Lesson 4: The students interpret the graphs of time-velocity diagrams. Partially this happens in other contexts. But the primary focus lies on the students performing various (self-chosen) actions with the throwing devices. Other group members then have to perform matching actions only by looking at the graphs (interpreting the data and experimenting playfully).

Detailed Throwing Sequence

To complement this, here are some graphics of how the t-v diagrams might look for different movements:

Throwing movements including diagrams


(((Deutsche Version)))

Theory of HR change while swimming- cosinuss

Description in english see below.
Esta presentación es la base de en un día de natación utilizando el sensor de oído de cosinuss°. El contenido se basa principalmente en los efectos biológicos que aparecen durante la natación, especialmente con respecto a los cambios en la frecuencia cardíaca. Enlace a la presentación Powerpoint: STEM on the move Menorca

This presentation is based on a swimming day using the cosinuss° in-ear sensor. Content is mostly based on biological effects that appear during swimming, especially regarding changes in heart rate.

Link to Powerpoint presentation: STEM on the move Menorca

Forces and interaction principles while Swimming

This is a template for four units on swimming and physics. The main focus is on forces and the interaction principle. The lessons alternate between a more practical or theoretical nature.

Overview of the lesson content:

Lesson 1: Examining the forces during swimming qualitatively.

Lesson 2: Learning about forces in a more theoretical/physics nature and using appropriate terms and definitions.

Lesson 3: Improve swimming speed with better techniques and minding water resistance. This includes using a sensor to better understand and monitor the progress/difficulties.

Lesson 4: Students apply Newton’s interaction principle to the swimming lessons and can also explain everyday situations using it.

Enclosed is the link to the document:

Swimming_Lessons_-_Physics Forces

Oxygen Supply while swimming

This lesson sequence is for a swimming class including biology sections (or classes). The focus is on the oxygen supply of the heart and body. Leading question through the lessons: Why am I out of breath so fast? How can I prevent this?

Overview of the lesson content:

Lesson 1: Practising the economization of breathing during swimming.

Lesson 2: Details about the oxygen supply in the body, examining lung volume and the role of the heart.

Lesson 3: Focus on the heart rate and recovery phase during swimming. Students learn to regulate their movement.

Lesson 4: Students reflect on their swim training, characterize the cardiovascular system and draw conclusions about keeping healthy.

Enclosed is the link to the document:

Swimming_Lessons_-_Biology: Oxygen Supply

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